Cessation of deep convection in the open Southern Ocean under anthropogenic climate change

The Southern Ocean is a major site of open-ocean deep convection. Using observational data and model simulations, it is found that surface waters have freshened since the 1950s and deep convection has weakened, and could cease, as a result of the freshening. This has implications for bottom-water formation, ocean heat and carbon storage.

Nature Climate Change doi: 10.1038/nclimate2132

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