Scientists Triple The Number Of Known Viruses In The World’s Oceans

Ocean Leadership ~

“Ten years ago I would never have dreamed that we could establish such an extensive catalog of ocean organisms around the world,” Sullivan said in the OSU news brief (Credit: CameliaTWU/Flickr)

(Click to enlarge) “Ten years ago I would never have dreamed that we could establish such an extensive catalog of ocean organisms around the world,” Sullivan said in the OSU news brief (Credit: CameliaTWU/Flickr)

An international research team has tripled the number of known types of viruses living in waters worldwide, which they say could help scientists understand the role viruses play in nature and how they can “bolster efforts to curb greenhouse gasses.”

(From The Weather Channel / by Pam Wright)– The study, published in Nature on Sept. 21, was conducted by an international team of scientists led by Ohio State University from samples collected from the world’s oceans from scientists, including Melissa Duhaime, a biologist at the University of Michigan. 

According to an OSU news brief, their work will likely have “far-reaching implications, including ultimately helping to preserve the environment through reducing excess carbon humans put into the atmosphere.”

As oceans soak up carbon, oceans become more acidic, which put some ocean-dwellers, including shellfish, at risk. The scientists say “understanding how microbes and viruses interact is critical to any possible management efforts.”

The Ohio State researchers used viral samples collected by more than 200 scientists on the three-year Tara Oceans Expeditionand data from the Spanish-led 2010 Malaspina expedition to identify and classify the viruses.

Lead author Simon Roux, a postdoctoral researcher in the lab of Matthew Sullivan, the study’s senior author and associate professor of microbiology at OSU,  analyzed genetic information from those samples to catalog 15,222 genetically distinct viruses and group them into 867 clusters that share similar properties. 

Read the full article here: https://weather.com/science/nature/news/scientists-viruses-ocean-greenhouse-gasses

The post Scientists Triple The Number Of Known Viruses In The World’s Oceans appeared on Consortium for Ocean Leadership.


Consortium for Ocean Leadership

It May Not Cost You More To Drive Home In A Climate-Friendly Car

It has been a common belief that low-emissions vehicles, like hybrids and electric cars, are more expensive than other choices. But a new study finds that when operating and maintenance costs are included in a vehicle's price, cleaner cars may actually be a better bet.

ENN: Top Stories

Iowa city flood prevention system holds back Cedar River

(Reuters) – A sprawling network of flood barricades erected in Iowa’s second-largest city of Cedar Rapids largely succeeded in holding back water from the rain-swollen Cedar River, city officials said on Tuesday.


Reuters: Environment

Obama power plant rules face key test in court

WASHINGTON (Reuters) – The centerpiece of President Barack Obama’s climate change strategy faced a key test on Tuesday as conservative appeals court judges questioned whether his administration overstepped its legal authority under an air pollution law to make sweeping changes to the U.S. electric sector.


Reuters: Environment

Fate of turtles and tortoises affected more by habitat than temperature

Habitat degradation poses a greater risk to the survival of turtles and tortoises than rising global temperatures, according to new research.

More than 60 per cent of the group are listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, because they are being traded, collected for food and medicine and their habitats are being degraded. Understanding the additional impact of global warming and changes in rainfall patterns on their diversity and distributions is therefore paramount to their conservation.

ENN: Top Stories

Assessment of the climate commitments and additional mitigation policies of the United States

Analysis of the US’s intended nationally determined contribution (INDC) shows additional policies are likely to be needed for it to meet its promised emissions reduction target, and highlights where deeper cuts could be made.

Nature Climate Change doi: 10.1038/nclimate3125


Nature Climate Change – AOP – nature.com science feeds

Third typhoon of the month hits Taiwan, 32 injured

TAIPEI (Reuters) – Strong wind and rain lashed Taiwan on Tuesday as the third typhoon to hit the island this month made landfall, injuring more than 30 people, ripping signs off buildings and knocking down trees.


Reuters: Environment

Fear of polar vortex repeat lifts U.S. natgas from doldrums

(Reuters) – Fears that the coming winter will be as brutal as the polar vortex of two years ago has started a scramble in markets for natural gas, driving the primary U.S. heating fuel’s price to 16-month highs.


Reuters: Environment

Jon White – From the President’s Office: 9-26-2016

Ocean Leadership ~

President’s Cornerpresphotomonterey

I was in Monterey much of last week attending the MTS/IEEE “Oceans 2016” conference and visiting Stanford’s Hopkins Marine Lab. It was a pleasure and an honor to follow Dr. Marcia McNutt (president of the National Academy of Sciences and COL at-large trustee) as a plenary speaker at the conference. But my real enjoyment was in seeing the impressive and enthusiastic ocean scientists and technologists demonstrating and discussing the advances that will help us observe, understand, and care for our ocean. While we will continue to use our ocean for transportation and resources, we know that we must do so sustainably and smartly if we are to survive and thrive on this oceanic planet. I salute the many people and organizations at the Oceans 2016 conference who are committed to doing just that and the leadership of MTS (a COL member) and IEEE for putting this conference together.
 
Monterey is the perfect place to have such an event, given its rich history in marine science. There are many ocean institutions in the area, including COL members Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), and Hopkins Marine Lab. I spent time with a collaborative team Professor Barbara Block of Hopkins Marine Lab formed with scientists from several institutions. The team is using a mix of science and technology (such as tuna and shark tagging and tracking) to find ways to monitor and improve the health and resiliency of species and ecosystems in the face of human activity, such as overfishing and illegal fishing. My photo this week is taken in front of the Hopkins Marine Lab library with several impressive representatives of this team (who spent a few hours educating me on their ground-breaking efforts) and even includes a tinge of the predominant “Monterey fog” that results from cold water upwelling in Monterey Bay.
 
Meanwhile back in DC … I am thrilled at the great turnout at a congressional briefing that we hosted with Representatives Sam Farr and Suzanne Bonamici last week. I was happy to hear that so many congressional staff, agency representatives, and other NGOs came out to hear about the wide-reaching impacts of ocean acidification, not only on ocean productivity, but on our nation’s economic stability and homeland security. We had representatives from several of our member institutions present. Dr. George Waldbusser from Oregon State University talked about OA’s impact to oyster larvae and the possible mitigating role of seagrasses, Dr. Thomas Miller from University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science’s Chesapeake Biological Laboratory spoke on how OA impacts blue crabs, and Nancy Colleton from the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies welcomed our audience and congressional speakers and addressed the overarching economic and security implications of OA. For a more thorough review of the briefing, which also included NOAA representation by Dr. Dwight Gledhill, see our summary here.

-Jon
RADM Jonathan W. White, USN (ret.); M.S.
President and CEO
Consortium for Ocean Leadership

Member Highlight

Research Shows How Wave Dynamics And Water Flows Affect Coral Reefs
While climate change threatens coral reefs in oceans around the world, not all reefs are affected equally. As oceans warm, physical forces like wave strength and water flow influence which reefs thrive and which die, according to a study led by Justin Rogers, a postdoctoral researcher at Stanford’s Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laboratory. The results, published in a report in the journal Limnology and Oceanography, offer new insight into how climate change will affect reefs on a local level – and also hint at steps conservationists can take to reduce the impact of warming on these fragile ecosystems.
 

 

The post Jon White – From the President’s Office: 9-26-2016 appeared on Consortium for Ocean Leadership.


Consortium for Ocean Leadership

Soil modeling to help curb climate change

Soil is a major carbon pool, whose impact on climate change is still not fully understood. According to a recent study, however, soil carbon stocks and could be modelled more accurately by factoring in the impacts of both soil nutrient status and soil composition. Determining the volume of carbon dioxide efflux from soil is important to enabling better choices in forest management with respect to curbing climate change. Knowledge of the extent and regional variation of soil carbon stocks is vital. Current soil carbon stock predictions are unreliable and it is difficult to estimate the volume of carbon dioxide efflux that is emitted from soil as a result of climate change.

ENN: Top Stories